District: Chittenden (Map)
2120 South Rd.
Williston, VT 05495
Tel. (802) 879-0054
Contact Local Paper(s):
EAI Roll Call Profiles provide a record of how legislators voted on key issues. The profiles are designed to be an educational tool, giving insight into the kinds of policies each representative supports and opposes. These bills did not necessarily become law.
2020 LEGISLATIVE SESSION
Mandatory Paid Family Leave /Payroll Tax (H.107). Passed 20-9 on January 17, 2020. Establish a government-mandated insurance program, funded by a new employee payroll tax of 0.2% on income up to $137,000 (every $50,000 is taxed $100). While all Vermont employees would have their wages taxed, only employees who work at least 675 hours annually would be eligible to receive 12 weeks of paid leave for the birth of a child, or 8 weeks for family care. Eligible employees can elect to pay an additional 0.38% of their wages to obtain personal medical leave of up to 6 weeks.
INGRAM - YES
Override Gov Veto of Minimum Wage Increase (S.23). Passed 24-6 on February 13, 2020. Increase the minimum wage from $10.96 currently to $11.75 in 2021 and $12.55 in 2022, a 14% total increase. $12.55 is 73% more than neighboring New Hampshire’s $7.25 minimum wage.
INGRAM - YES
Revised Global Warming Solutions Act (H.688). Passed 23-5 on June 26, 2020. Creates a Climate Council made up of 22 state government officials and citizen experts to adopt a “Vermont Climate Action Plan.” The GWSA guides the Agency of Natural Resources in creating new rules for achieving carbon emission targets, beginning with 26% below 2005 levels by 2025. Any citizen/group can issue a warning to the state in court for not adopting rules quickly enough. They receive attorney’s fees if they win. The Senate removes the House’s $900,000 appropriation to the Climate Council.
INGRAM - YES
Remove Governor from “All-Mail Election” Decision (S.348). Passed 21-7 on June 2, 2020. S.348 would remove the Governor’s right to approve emergency elections changes in consultation with the Secretary of State for the 2020 election made necessary by the COVID-19 pandemic. The proposal in question would involve mailing as many as 500,000 “live” absentee ballots to every registered, currently uncontested voter in the state of Vermont regardless of the voter requesting a ballot.
INGRAM - YES
Prohibit “Ballot Harvesting” (S.348, Benning Amendment). Passed 24-5 on June 3, 2020. The amendment would discourage “ballot harvesting,” in which campaign operatives/activists collect ballots from voters, often resulting in undo influence over voters, fraudulent filling out of ballots, and destruction of ballots. The amendment says “an early voter absentee ballot may be returned only by the voter; the justices of the peace who delivered the ballot, if applicable; or an authorized family member or caregiver acting in the voter’s behalf.” It also defines criminal penalties if violated and mandates a civil investigation if there is reason to suspect this kind of fraud is occurring.
INGRAM - NO
Expand Scope of Energy Tax and Subsidize Program (S.337). Passed 28-2 on May 19, 2020. The bill would give electric utilities like Efficiency Vermont the option to spend up to $2 million of their ratepayer-generated funds on transportation (electric cars) and heating efficiency projects, in addition to their electricity efficiency projects. This program would be allowed for limited time frame of 3 years.
INGRAM - YES
Give Most Future Convicts Right to Parole (H.261). Passed 21-9 on March 11, 2020. To give future individuals convicted of first- and second-degree murder the potential to get out on parole. Prisoners would be allowed to come before the parole board if they have spent at least 35 years in prison or have served their minimum sentence. Those convicted of aggravated murder could still receive life in prison without parole.
INGRAM - YES
Advise Funding Afterschool with Marijuana Revenue (S.335, White Amendment). Passed 16-13 on February 14, 2020. The underlying bill would create a 15-member task force for studying universal afterschool program feasibility, which would report back to the Legislature in December 2020. The amendment asks the afterschool task force to consider funding the afterschool program with revenue from a (potential) marijuana market.
INGRAM - YES
2019 LEGISLATIVE SESSION
Mandatory Paid Family Leave/Payroll Tax (H.107). Passed 19-10 on May 15, 2019. This would put in place a government-mandated Paid Family Leave program paid for with a new payroll tax on income up to $132,900. The program would allow an employee to take up to 12 weeks of paid leave for the birth of a child, or 6 weeks for family care. Qualified employees would receive 90% of their first $7.29/hour and 55% of their wages between $7.30-$24.10/hour. Wages above $24.10/hour ($73,580/year) would not be covered. A maximum cap on the benefit would be set at $964 per week. The payroll tax would be initially set at 0.20% (employees and employers each paying half), and the estimated total cost would be $30 million annually. INGRAM – YES
Impose a Mandatory $15 Minimum Wage (S.23). Passed 19-8 on February 22, 2019. This would increase the state minimum wage to $13.10 in 2022, $14.05 in 2023, and to $15 in 2024 — nearly a 40% total increase, and more than double neighboring New Hampshire’s $7.25 minimum wage. INGRAM – YES
Expand the “Pay to Move” Program (S.162). Passed 27-2 on April 12, 2019. This would expand a current worker relocation program which reimburses the moving expenses ($10,000 total maximum) for out-of-state workers who move to Vermont and telecommute to jobs out-of-state. It would now include workers who take a full-time job with a Vermont based employer. The maximum reimbursement to this new category of beneficiary would be $7500. INGRAM – YES
Ban Plastic Bags, Styrofoam Food Containers, Straws, Etc. (S.113). Passed 30-0 on April 3, 2019. This would prohibit stores and restaurants from providing single-use plastic bags to customers. It would require that retailers charge at least 10¢ for single-use paper bags. “Polystyrene foam” coffee cups, plastic straws (unless requested), and food containers would be forbidden. Finally, it would create a “Single-Use Products Working Group” to study the effectiveness of these policies and make recommendations for future regulation.
INGRAM – YES
Require Registration/Certification for Housing Contractors (S.163). Passed 19-11 on April 3, 2019. It would require residential contractors to register with the state and purchase insurance, while encouraging contractors to become state-certified, on a voluntary basis. It would also further regulate maintenance standards for rental housing. INGRAM – YES
Block Insurance Innovation Economic Development Program (S.131, Baruth Amendment). Failed 7-22 on April 3, 2019. In order to spur economic growth and innovation in the insurance market, Section 1 of S.131 would create an “insurance sandbox” through which Vermont insurance providers (not including health insurance) can petition the commissioner for the freedom to sell a new insurance product to up to 10,000 consumers, exempt from some regulations, for a maximum of two years. The Baruth Amendment sought to remove that section of the bill, thus eliminating the innovation incentive. INGRAM – NO
Allow Commercialized Retail Marijuana Sales/Taxation (S.54). Passed 23-5 on February 28, 2019. This would create a regulatory system for the production, sale, and taxation of recreational marijuana products in Vermont. INGRAM – YES
Impose 24 Hour Waiting Period for Handgun Purchase (S.169). Passed 20-10 on March 21, 2019. Gun purchasers passing a background check would need to wait 24 hours before taking possession of their gun. INGRAM – YES
Oppose F-35 Jets in VT (S.R. 5). Passed 22-7 on April 24, 2019. This resolution calls for the state to formally request that no “nuclear weapons delivery system” (i.e. the F-35 fighter jet) be based in Vermont. If acted upon, this would effectively eliminate the mission of the Vermont National Guard, which employs 3600 people and contributes $100 million to the Vermont economy. INGRAM – YES
Elevate the murder a firefighter or emergency medical provider to “aggravated murder” (H.321). Passed 20-8 on April 18, 2019. In current law, the killing of a correctional officer or law enforcement officer while the victim was performing his or her official duties is classified as “aggravated murder” (first or second degree murder). This bill would elevate the murder of firefighters and emergency medical providers that level as well. INGRAM – NO
Advance Constitutional Amendment to Remove References to Slavery (Proposition 2). Passed 28-1 on April 24, 2019. This amendment would revise the State Constitution to eliminate references to slavery but does not actually change any policy as the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution abolished slavery in 1865. INGRAM – YES
Advance a Constitutional Amendment Guaranteeing Abortion from Conception to Birth (Proposition 5). Passed 28-2 on April 4, 2019. This would amend the Vermont Constitution to say that “an individual’s right to personal reproductive autonomy is central to the liberty and dignity to determine one’s own life course and shall not be denied or infringed unless justified by a compelling state interest achieved by the least restrictive means.” It would effectively bar any potential legal restrictions on abortion from conception to the moment of birth. INGRAM – YES
2018 LEGISLATIVE SESSION
$33.4 Million Property Tax Increase (H.911). Passed 26-3 on May 4, 2018. The bill increases property taxes 5% for residential homes and 7% for non-residential property. On the other hand, it lowers income rates (lower-income tax brackets by 0.2% and the higher income-tax brackets by 0.1%) to compensate for an unintended $30 million increase resulting from changes in federal tax law. The bill also ends the tax on social security for Vermonters with incomes less than $55,000, allows for a 5 percent tax credit for charitable donations and removes a $10,000 cap on deductions for charitable donations. Those voting YES support this tax package. Those voting NO do not support this tax package. Corrected 11/2/18: The original post indicated that the property tax increases for residential and non-residential properties were 5% and 7% respectively. This should have read 5¢ (3.2%) and 7¢ (4.4%). Apologies for any confusion. INGRAM – YES
$15 Minimum Wage (S.40). Passed 20-10 on February 15, 2018. S.40 would increase Vermont’s minimum wage at least $0.60 every January 1st, reaching $15 an hour by 2024. Those voting YES believe this will benefit low income workers and help to close the “income inequality” gap. Those voting NO believe that such a large and rapid increase in the cost of labor will harm Vermont businesses, the overall economy, as well as the workers the bill was meant to help due to cutbacks in hours, lost benefits, and/or lost jobs as employers struggle to maintain budgets. Additionally, a majority of Vermonters living in low income households, especially poor senior citizens, do not report wage income. While their incomes would be unaffected by the minimum wage increase, their cost of living would rise due to higher prices for goods and services due to the artificial wage increase being passed along to consumers. INGRAM – YES
Gun Control Measures (S.55). Passed 17-13 on March 30, 2018. S.55 raises the age for long gun purchases to 21, mandates background checks for nearly all private firearm sales, bans magazines holding more than fifteen rounds, and bans bump stocks. Those voting YES believe these measures will result in safer communities by reducing gun violence. Those voting NO believe that these measures will have no measurable impact on safety or violence, create undo burdens on law abiding gun owners, are largely unenforceable, and pose constitutional issues at both the state and federal levels. INGRAM – YES
Raise Age to Purchase All Firearms to 21 (S.55, Ashe Amendment). Passed 21-9 on March 2, 2018. This S.55 Amendment makes it a crime to selling firearms to Vermonters under 21. Those voting YES are in favor of raising the age to purchase a firearm to 21. Those voting NO sought to keep the age requirement at 18, which is the age one can use a gun in the military.
Mandatory Background Checks for Private Firearms Sales (S.55, Baruth Amendment). Passed 17-13 on March 1, 2018. This S.55 Amendment requires a mandatory background check before private sales of firearms. Those voting YES believe the measure will help prevent gun violence by keeping firearms out of the wrong hands. Those voting NO believe this constitutes an undue financial and logistical burden on law abiding gun owners that will not keep guns out of the hands of criminals, and therefore will not prevent gun crimes. INGRAM – YES
Appliance Ban (H.410). Passed 25-4 on May 9, 2018. H.410 applies efficiency standards established in 2014 to over a dozen new products, including showerheads, computers and telephones. Those voting YES believe that some consumer goods are too energy-intensive, and that Vermonters should not be allowed to purchase them. Those voting NO believe that Vermonters should be allowed to decide for themselves the costs and benefits of the appliances they purchase. INGRAM – YES
Increasing Chemical Regulations (S.103). Passed 22-8 on April 19, 2018. S.103 would grant the commissioner of health more authority to regulate toxic chemicals in children’s products. Those voting YES believe S.103 would help Vermont children avoid exposure to toxic chemicals in children’s products, thus improving children’s health outcomes. Those voting NO believe we should wait and see how our newly phased-in regulations will work, before burdening our bureaucracy and businesses with more invasive regulations.
Net Neutrality for Vermont (S.289). Passed 23-5 on February 2, 2018. S.289 attempts to maintain at the state level the federal “net neutrality” regulations for Internet Service Providers passed by the FCC in 2015 and repealed in 2018. Those voting YES are in favor of a larger role for government in regulating the internet. Those voting NO were concerned about costly lawsuits to the state and lost internet coverage. INGRAM – YES
Free Legal Counsel to Challenge Immigration Status (S.237). Passed 28-2 on February 14, 2018. S.237 allows state-paid public defenders, including the Defender General, to provide legal help to immigrants on immigration issues in the federal court system. Those voting YES believe that immigrants and farm workers residing in Vermont should have access to taxpayer funded representation in federal court “in or with respect to a matter arising out of or relating to immigration status.” Those voting NO believe that giving Vermont’s Defender General more responsibilities without increased funding would put a strain on that government office. There is already a backlog of cases, and the Defender General would have to reallocate resources away from other vital government functions in order to provide this service. The federal court system already offers court-appointed legal counsel, and there is no reason for the state to duplicate this service. INGRAM – YES
Mandate “Gender Free” Rest Rooms (H.333). Passed 30-0 on April 18, 2018. H.333 mandates that any single-user toilet in any public building or place of public accommodation be identified as “gender-free,” outlawing single-user “Men’s” and “Ladies” rooms in Vermont. “The Commissioner of Public Safety may inspect for compliance….” Those voting YES believe this is “no big deal,” and helps to make Vermont more welcoming to a broader range of people. Those voting NO believe this is an example of government overreach, subjecting Vermont businesses to inspections and fines for non-compliance with laws like this (as well as the cost and time associated with replacing current signs) furthers Vermont’s reputation as unfriendly to business, and, that this was a “solution is search of a problem” as nobody was being refused use of public restroom. INGRAM – YES
Oppose Racial Quotas for Civil Rights Panel (S.281, Brock Amendment). Failed 12-18 on March 21, 2018. The Brock Amendment to S.281 would have removed a provision in the underlying bill that mandated at least three “persons of color” be appointed to the Civil Rights Advisory Panel. Those voting YES believe that creating a government panel with racial quotas sets a bad precedent for rooting out racial discrimination, and is, in fact, an example of systematic racism. Those voting NO believe that setting a racial quota is necessary to ensure representation from those have been discriminated against. INGRAM – NO
2017 LEGISLATIVE SESSION
$5.83 Billion FY18 Budget/$8 Million Property Tax Increase (H.518). Passed 30-0 on April 26, 2017. The “Big Bill” sets the total state budget, including federally funded projects, at $5.83, which represents a spending increase of 1.3 percent over the current year. The state funded portion of total spending is set at $2.48 billion, an increase of 0.7 percent. This Senate version of the budget transferred an $8 million obligation to teacher retirement into the state Education Fund, which would require a 0.8 cent increase in the non-residential property tax rate. INGRAM – YES
Create Statewide Teachers’ Healthcare Contract/$26 Million in Property Tax Savings (H.518). Passed 22-6 on May 3, 2017. This is a tricky roll call to analyze. At face value, the bill sets state budget for FY18. However, the vote became a symbolic referendum on Governor Phil Scott’s proposal to save a potential $26 million in property taxes by restructuring how teachers negotiate and receive health insurance benefits. Those voting YES supported the budget, which was met with no new taxes or fees, opposed the Governors proposal property tax savings, or both. Those voting NO supported the Governor’s proposal and thought it should have been adopted as part of the overall budgeting process. INGRAM – YES
Legalize Growing/Possessing Marijuana, Sets Stage for Retail Sales/Taxation (S.22). Passed 22-9 on May 5, 2017. S.22 was originally a fentanyl regulation bill repurposed to be a vehicle for passage of marijuana legalization. It would remove all criminal penalties for adults 21 or older who possess up to an ounce of marijuana, and allow growing up to two mature and two immature marijuana plants per household, and would go into effect in 2018. The bill also sets up a commission that will create a framework for taxing and regulating retail sales of marijuana. Those voting YES support legalization of marijuana; those voting NO oppose it. INGRAM – NO
Raise Legal Smoking Age to 21 (S.88) Failed 13-16 on April 25, 2017. Those voting YES were in favor of raising the legal smoking age to 21, those voting NO opposed the measure. INGRAM – YES
Eliminate Parental Rights In Regard to Gender Identity Related Mental Health Counseling for Minors (H.230). Passed 24-6 on April 21, 2017. This bill proposed to allow minors (under the age of 18) to “consent to mental health treatment for any condition related to the minor’s sexual orientation or gender identity,” including counseling and psychotherapy. These services would be paid for by the child’s school or, it that is impractical, another agency. Those voting YES think this is a good idea. Those voting NO see it as a violation and usurpation of parental rights. INGRAM – YES
Elected, November 2017