Rep. Alice Miller, Bennington 3

District: Glastenbury, Shaftsbury, Sunderland (Map)
Party: Democrat
Contact Information:
88 Horton Hill Rd.
Shaftsbury, VT 05262
[email protected]
(802) 442-9825
Contact Local Paper(s):
[email protected]


EAI Roll Call Profiles provide a record of how legislators voted on key issues. The profiles are designed to be an educational tool, giving insight into the kinds of policies each representative supports and opposes. These bills did not necessarily become law.


$5.9 Billion FY19 Budget (H.924). Passed 117-14 on May 12, 2018. The “Big Bill” budget for FY19 totaled $5,861,048,670 an increase of a little over 1% from the FY18 budget. General Fund spending shows a decline of 17.2%, from $1.6 billion to just under $1.3 billion, but this is only because the legislature eliminated the General Fund transfer to the education fund, replacing that money from other sources. The “apples to apples” growth in spending is 2.5%. MILLER – YES

House Passes $59 million Income Tax Increase/Property Tax Cut (H.911) Passed 85-54 on March 21, 2018. This was a two-part bill. The first part shifts some responsibility for funding Vermont’s pre-k-12 education system from the property tax to the income tax. The second part negates an unintended $30 million tax increase resulting from changes in the federal tax code. Part 1 includes a $59 million income tax increase, called a “surcharge,” eliminates the current General Fund transfer to the Education Fund, and dedicates 100% of the sales and use tax to the Education Fund. This allows for a cut in homestead property tax rates of 15 cents/$100 of assessed value. Part 2 lowers each of Vermont’s marginal tax rates for personal income taxes by at least 0.2%, expands the earned-income tax credit, and eliminates the tax on Social Security benefits for Vermonters with less than $55,000 in income. Those voting YES are in favor of reducing the reliance on the property tax for the purpose of funding pre-k-12 education spending, and shifting that burden to the income tax, which they believe better reflects ability to pay. Those voting NO note that H.911 does not address education spending, it merely shifts the costs without reducing or curbing the total tax burden. The income tax surcharge will give Vermont the third highest marginal income tax rate in the nation. The income tax is historically a volatile revenues source, and ill-suited for education funding. The shift to income taxes is unfair to renters who end up paying higher income taxes but get no property tax relief. This new funding scheme is unfair to 30,000 non-residents who chose to work in Vermont and will now be paying this new education tax with not compensating property tax decrease. H.911 leaves all the complexity of the current system in place (CLA, per pupil spending, income sensitivity etc.), and adds even more complexity by introducing new income tax surcharge. And, finally, object to the tactic of tying two unrelated ideas together in one bill, holding tax relief hostage to a shift to the income tax to pay for education. MILLER – YES

$16 Million Payroll Tax for Paid Family Leave (H.196) Passed 90-53 on May 11, 2018. H.196 would levy a 0.136% ($16.3 million) payroll tax on employees to pay for a state-mandated, government-run family leave insurance program. However, if the demand for the benefit exceeds the amount raised at this rate, the legislature will have to adjust the rate upward to raise enough revenue to cover the cost. Those voting YES supported the program, believing it will make Vermont more “family friendly” and appealing to young workers. Those voting NO see this as another burdensome “mandate from Montpelier” on businesses, that the tax rate has been set artificially low and will have to be raised, and that this bill levies a $16.3 million tax on all working Vermonters, even though only a fraction of them will have occasion or the ability to benefit from the program. MILLER – YES

$15 Minimum Wage (S.40). Passed 77-60 on May 18, 2018. S.40 would raise Vermont’s minimum wage from the current $10.50/hr. to $15/hr. by the year 2024.Those voting YES believe this will benefit low income workers and help to close the “income inequality” gap. Those voting NO believe that such a large and rapid increase in the cost of labor will harm Vermont businesses, the overall economy, as well as the workers the bill was meant to help due to cutbacks in hours, lost benefits, and/or lost jobs as employers struggle to maintain budgets. Additionally, a majority of Vermonters living in low income households, especially poor senior citizens, do not report wage income. While their incomes would be unaffected by the minimum wage increase, their cost of living would rise due to higher prices for goods and services due to the artificial wage increase being passed along to consumers. MILLER – YES

$6.4 Million Tax Package to Fund Lake Clean Up (S.260). Passed 92-48 on May 4, 2018. S.260 would raise $6.4 million in new revenue, primarily from a $4.55 million increase in the state rooms and meals tax (from 9% to 9.25%). The rest, $1.94 million, would come via the confiscation of revenue from unclaimed bottle/can deposits, which is currently the property of the beverage distributors and used by them to defray the costs of managing recycling programs. These taxes would not take effect until 2020, and only then if the legislature does not find another source of funding. Those voting YES believe higher taxes are necessary to fund water quality improvements. Those voting NO believe that water quality improvements should be funded with existing resources, not tax increases, that they should especially not be funded in a way that discourages tourism, such as increasing the rooms and meals tax, or in a way that punishes industries (tourism and beverage distribution) that do not contribute measurably to water pollution problem and, in the case of the unclaimed deposit money, actually help maintain a clean environment through recycling programs. MILLER – YES

Mandate That Vermonters Buy Health Insurance (H.696). Passed 118-16 on May 12, 2018. The primary objective of H.696 is to require individual Vermonters to purchase and maintain “minimum essential [health insurance] coverage” for themselves and any dependent or pay a penalty to the state beginning in the 2020 plan year. However, legislators do not know how this would work or how it would be enforced, so the bill also creates the “Individual Mandate Working Group” to figure it out. Those voting YES support forcing Vermonters to purchase health insurance as doing so will help keep overall insurance premiums lower. Those voting NO do not support a state mandate to purchase health insurance, assert that forcing citizens to purchase a product from a private company is government overreach, and note that the mandate will make Vermont less affordable for young people, who we are supposedly trying to attract. MILLER – YES

Gun Control Measures (S.55). Passed 89-54 on March 27, 2018. S.55 raises the age for long gun purchases to 21, mandates background checks for nearly all private firearm sales, bans magazines holding more than fifteen rounds, and bans bump stocks. Those voting YES believe these measures will result in safer communities by reducing gun violence. Those voting NO believe that these measures will have no measurable impact on safety or violence, create excessive burdens on law abiding gun owners, are largely unenforceable, and violate Vermont’s constitutional guarantee of the “right to bear arms for the defence of themselves….” MILLER – YES

Legalization of Recreational Marijuana (H.511). Passed 81-63 on January 4, 2018. H.511 legalizes possession of up to an ounce of marijuana for use by people 21 and older and allows possession of four immature and two mature marijuana plants. Those voting YES support the legalization of marijuana for recreational use. Those voting NO do not support the legalization of marijuana for recreational use. MILLER – YES

Increase Fee on Telecommunication Bills (H.582). Passed 109-27 on February 16, 2018. S.582 increases the surcharge that appears on Vermonters’ telecommunications bills from 2 to 2.5 percent, which amounts an estimated $6.3 million fee increase. The raise would sunset in four years (2022). The money collected from this increase will be transferred to the Connectivity Fund, which distributes grants to internet service providers that expand networks in underserved areas. Those voting YES believe these additional funds are necessary to connect all Vermonters to the internet. Those voting NO believe that Vermonters cannot afford any more taxes/fees, note that the Connectivity Fund has a history of being raided for other purposes, and that there is no clear plan for how the money would be spent to achieve the stated objective. MILLER – YES

Give Taxpayer Funded Legal Counsel to Those Challenging Immigration Status (S.237). Passed on April 10, 2018, by a vote of 97-40. S.237 allows state-paid public defenders, including the Defender General, to provide legal help to immigrants on immigration issues in the federal court system. Those voting YES believe that immigrants and farm workers residing in Vermont should have access to taxpayer funded representation in federal court “in or with respect to a matter arising out of or relating to immigration status.” Those voting NO believe that giving Vermont’s Defender General more responsibilities without increased funding would put a strain on that government office. There is already a backlog of cases, and the Defender General would have to reallocate resources away from other vital government functions in order to provide this service. The federal court system already offers court-appointed legal counsel, and there is no reason for the state to duplicate this service. MILLER – YES

Ban More Appliances Via Efficiency Standards (H.410). Passed 137-4 on January 31, 2018. H.410 applies efficiency standards established in 2014 to over a dozen new products, including showerheads, computers and telephones. Those voting YES believe that some consumer goods are too energy-intensive, and that Vermonters should not be allowed to purchase them. Those voting NO believe that Vermonters should be allowed to decide for themselves the costs and benefits of the appliances they purchase. MILLER – YES


$5.82 Billion FY18 Budget (H.518). Passed 143-1 on March 30, 2017.  H.518 set the total FY18 budget at a $5.82 billion, an overall 1% increase over FY17. State (non-Federal) spending would total $2.5 billion, an increase of about $20 million over FY17. The General Fund would grow by 1.8%. Those voting YES celebrated a budget that did not rely on new taxes or fee increases and grows in line with inflation.The one NO vote explained his vote, ““Even though we haven’t increased [the budget], I think the budget needs to go on a diet.” MILLER – YES

Miscellaneous Tax Bill with No New Taxes or Fees (H.516). Passed 138-0 on March 30, 2017. The Miscellaneous Tax Bill for FY18 did not include any new taxes or fees. It does rely on approximately $5 million in new revenue from enhanced compliance with existing taxes. The bill passed unanimously. MILLER – ABSENT

Create Statewide Teachers’ Healthcare Contract/$26 Million in Property Tax Savings (H.509, Beck Amendment). Failed 74-74 on May 3, 2017. The Beck Amendment represented Governor Scott’s proposal to create a statewide teachers’ contract for healthcare benefits, which could save property taxpayers an estimated $26,000,000.  Those voting YES supported the proposal. Those voting NO opposed it. Speaker Johnson cast the deciding vote, killing the proposal. MILLER – NO

Mandate Employees Buy Family Leave Insurance Via New Payroll Tax (H.196). Passed 88-58 on March 3, 2017. H.196 levies a new payroll tax on Vermont employees to create a new “family leave” program that would be administered similarly to unemployment insurance. The language in the bill sets the payroll tax at 0.141% of one’s first $150,000 of income, but acknowledges that if revenue necessary to fund demand the program is not met by that rate, the rate will rise to meet demand. Those voting YES support the program. Those voting NO see it as another tax and administrative burden on Vermont businesses. MILLER – YES

Allow Warrantless Confiscation of Firearms In Cases of Alleged Domestic Abuse (H.422). Passed 78-60 on March 22, 2017. H.422 would allow law enforcement to confiscate firearms from a citizen arrested or cited for domestic assault, without a warrant and regardless of whether or not a firearm played a part in the allegation, for a period of up to five days. Those voting YES on this bill believe the measure is necessary to combat domestic abuse. Those voting NO see this as a violation of Article 16 of the Vermont Constitution (the right to defend one’s self), and the Second Amendment (the right to keep and bear arms), Fourth Amendment (unreasonable search and seizure), Fifth Amendment (due process), and Fourteenth Amendment (equal protection under the law) of the U.S. Constitution. MILLER – YES

Restrict Private Property/Development Rights (H.233). Passed 85-58 on May 4, 2017. The “Forest Fragmentation” bill makes it much more difficult for property owners to develop subdivide their land by creating a number of regulatory criteria that must be met in regard to preserving “forest blocks,” defined in part as “a contiguous area of forest in any stage of succession and not currently developed for non-forest use.” Those voting YES want to impose additional Act 250 regulation on rural forest land. Those voting NO believe rural forestland additional regulation of forestland is unwarranted, will discourage long term investment in forestland and in forestry, and is a violation of personal property rights. MILLER – YES

Mandate “Gender Neutral” Bathrooms (H.333). Passed 123-19 on April 21, 2017. H.333 would make it illegal for a restaurant, gas station, grocery store, etc. to offer customers the service of private men’s and women’s bathrooms, mandating that all single-occupancy bathrooms be open to all genders. Those voting YES believe this is necessary to make transgender citizens feel comfortable. Those voting NO believe this is a gross example of government overreach, and an unnecessary regulation interfering with Vermont businesses. MILLER – YES

Legalize Growing/Possessing Marijuana, Sets Stage for Retail Sales/Taxation (S.22). Passed 79-66 on May 10, 2017. S.22 was originally a fentanyl regulation bill repurposed to be a vehicle for passage of marijuana legalization. It would remove all criminal penalties for adults 21 or older who possess up to an ounce of marijuana, and allow growing up to two mature and two immature marijuana plants per household, and would go into effect in 2018. The bill also sets up a commission that will create a framework for taxing and regulating retail sales of marijuana. Those voting YES support legalization of marijuana; those voting NO oppose it. MILLER – YES

Bar State Law Enforcement from Gathering Information for a Federal Immigration Registry (S.79). Passed 110-24 on March 14, 2017. This bill was designed to “send a message” regarding President Trump’s policies on immigration, but without doing anything that might classify Vermont as “sanctuary state.” The registry the bill bars Vermont from providing information to does not actually exist. Those voting YES oppose the president’s immigration policies. Those voting NO see the bill as a solution to a problem that doesn’t exist, but potentially puts federal funding for Vermont programs at risk. MILLER – YES

Pledge Support/Funds for Global/State Climate Change Agenda (H.R.15). Passed 105-31, June 21, 2017. Those voting YES on H.R.15 resolved that Vermont will continue to bear the costs and sacrifices of the global Paris Climate Agreement despite the U.S. withdrawal from the pact, and to affirm support for an aggressive statewide CO2 reduction program. Those voting NO recognized that this resolution, would require significantly higher taxes, economically crippling regulations, and that legislators were voting on this after no debate and no analysis of the potential economic impact. MILLER – YES



$5.77 Billion FY17 Budget (H.875). Passed 94-40 on March 24, 2016. Those voting YES on this bill approved a total $5.77 billion state budget for FY17. This represents a total increase of 2.7 percent over FY16 (not accounting for adjustments that will occur in the next legislative session.) The $1.47 billion general fund portion of the budget, however, increases by 4.8 percent, while revenue is projected to grow at just 2.2%. This budget also leaves an estimated $30 million hole for the FY18 budget. Those voting NO argued that continuing the trend of spending taxpayer dollars faster than revenue comes into the treasury is unsustainable and irresponsible. MILLER – YES

Adjust 2016 Budget Upward by $91.8 Million (H.611). Passed 90-54 on January 26, 2016. Those voting YES voted in favor of increasing spending for FY16 by a total of $91.8 million (raising the previously accepted state budget to $5.6 billion, a 2.5% increase over FY15), $12.3 million of which is represents increases in General Fund spending (raising total General Fund Spending to $1.48 billion, a 5% increase over FY15). Those voting NO opposed these spending increases on the grounds that the state cannot continue to spend money faster than revenue is coming in, and that continuing to do so is causing a structural deficit. MILLER – YES

$37 Million in New Miscellaneous Taxes (H.873) Passed 86-59 on March 23, 2016. Those voting YES approved $37 million worth of new taxes. These include stringent enforcement of the 9% rooms and meals tax on private, short term rentals such as those contracted through AirBnB, raising the assessment on employers who do not offer health insurance to their employees to $151.12 per employee for businesses with 19 or fewer employees, $210.00 for businesses with 20-99 employees, and $249.00 for businesses with over 100 or more employees. The bill also puts a 3.3 percent assessment on ambulance agencies’ annual net patient revenues for services. And increases by 0.25% the fuel gross receipts on heating oil, propane, kerosene, dyed diesel, natural gas and coal to 0.75%. And, a $2.4 million a year increase in the bank franchise tax. Those voting NO opposed these tax increases. MILLER – YES

$11 Million Motor Vehicle Fee Increases (H.877). Passed 104-40 on March 30, 2016. Those voting YES on this bill supported $11 million in new or higher motor vehicle related fees. Increased costs include: higher motor vehicle registration fees, higher transfer of ownership fees, higher fees for driver’s licenses, learner’s permits and non-driver ID cards, higher fees for vehicle inspections, an increase the annual motor vehicle emission (“clean air”) fee, and a higher cost for choosing a “vanity” license plate. There is also a new $80 fee for reinstating a suspended registration. Those voting NO opposed these fee increases. MILLER – YES

$7.9 Million Property Tax Increase (H.853). Passed 98-45 on March 30, 2016. The primary function of this bill is to set the property tax rates for FY17, as well as to take care of some miscellaneous educational items. Those voting YES supported what amounts to a 0.2¢ increase for residential property tax payers, and in total, a $7.9 million proper tax increase ($4 million coming from residential and $3.9 million from non-residential taxpayers). Those voting NO opposed the tax increase, noting that if the spending thresholds in Act 46 had been left in place Vermont homeowners would have experienced a cut in property taxes. MILLER – YES

Raise Education (Act 46) Spending Caps (S.233, House Education Committee Amendment). Passed 94-52 on January 27, 2016. Act 46, the education governance reform law passed in 2015, was billed as a response to Vermonters’ calls for property tax relief. Those voting YES on this amendment supported raising the 2 percent allowable growth percentage in Act 46 by 0.9 percent, reducing the penalty for exceeding the threshold from $1 for every dollar exceeding to 25¢ per dollar exceeding.  Those voting NO either objected to the resulting property tax increase, or supported the objective of the underlying bill (S.233) to repeal the spending caps all together. MILLER – YES

$24 Million in Fee Hikes (H.872). Passed 98-46 on March 23, 2016. Those voting YES supported increasing the net fees paid in Vermont by $24 million – the highest increase on record. The 2015 fee increases, in comparison, amounted to $2.7 million. Those voting NO opposed not just the fee increases but the precedents set by raising fees to fund general revenue projects. The legal definition of a fee is that it is used to pay the costs of regulating or servicing the entity paying the fee, and no more. MILLER – YES

Mandate Paid Sick Leave (H.187). Passed 81-64 on February 3, 2016. Those voting YES supported a de facto tax on mostly small/micro businesses of $14.3 million dollars annually when fully implemented.” The bill would allow an employee to accrue “not less than one hour of earned sick time for every 52 hours worked,” with a maximum number of hours accrued set at 24 hours in a 12-month period from January 1, 2017 until December 31, 2018 and then a maximum of 40 hours in a 12-month period after December 31, 2018. Those voting NO opposed adding another burden to struggling Vermont businesses. MILLER – YES

92% Tax on E-Cigarettes (H.879). Passed 83-54 on March 30, 2016. Those voting YES supported putting a 92% on e-cigarettes and related products for a total tax increase of an estimated $500,000. Those voting NO opposed raising the tax, noting that e-cigarettes are not tobacco, but rather a tobacco substitute that many people use as a way to quit smoking. MILLER – YES

Strike $1.6 Million Telephone Tax Increase (H.870, Turner Amendment). Failed 48-97 on April 13, 2016. The Turner Amendment sought to strike a $1.6 million tax increase from the telecom bill. Those voting NO wanted to keep the tax increase in place, citing the need to pay for expanding broadband service. Those voting YES wanted to eliminate the tax increase, stating that the money could have and should have been found in the already passed general fund budget, and that Vermonters cannot afford any more taxes. MILLER – ABSENT

Raise Smoking Age/$900,000 Tobacco Tax Increase (H.93). Passed 84-61on April 5, 2016. Those voting YES supported raising the smoking age from 18 to 21 over a three year period ending in 2019, and raising the tax on cigarettes by 39¢ (to a total of $3.47) and on other tobacco products by 32¢ — an estimated $900,000 tax increase. Those voting NO opposed the higher age limit and tax increase. MILLER – YES

Block Legalization of Marijuana (H.858, Conquest Amendment). Passed 121-28), 2016, May 3, 2016. This amendment killed legislation that would have legalized, regulated and taxed marijuana in Vermont. Those voting YES on this amendment DID NOT support the legalization of marijuana. Those voting NO on this amendment DID support the legalization of marijuana. MILLER – NO


$16 Million Property Tax Increase, Mandates for School District Consolidation. (H.361). Passed 88-55, April 1, 2015. Those voting YES on this bill approved a $16 million increase in school property taxes, setting the statewide homestead property tax rate at $0.98 (flat), and raising the nonresidential property tax rate to $1.525. The bill also placed mandates on school districts to consolidate into Pre-K- 12 districts of no fewer than 1100 students and put in place a complicated formula for capping school budgets, which could not be triggered until 2018. Those voting NO on H.361 saw this as a failure to answer the pleas of citizens for meaningful tax relief, while launching a serious assault on local control and the democratic process. MILLER – YES

$1.48 Billion General Fund Budget (4.8% Spending Increase) for FY16 (H.490). Passed 96-46, March 26, 2015. Those voting YES on H.490 approved a $1.48 billion general fund budget. This is a $68 million spending increase (4.8%) over the FY15 budget (adopted in 2014) and grows spending at 3 times the average rate of inflation (1.6% in 2014). Those voting NO did so on the grounds that increasing spending by 4.8% while revenue is only projected to grow at 2.4% is unsustainable and irresponsible. They also objected to using $24 million in one-time funds to achieve “balance,” and that this budget sets up a projected budget gap of $50-$70 million for FY17/FY18. MILLER – YES

$12 Million In New Taxes on Candy, Sweetened Beverages, Vending Machines & Tobacco (S.139, COMMITTEE OF WAYS & MEANS AMENDMENT). Passed 78-62, April 30, 2015. Those voting YES on this amendment supported extending Vermont’s 6% sales tax to candy (not containing flour) and sweetened beverages (not milk based), applying Vermont’s 9% rooms and meals tax to vending machine purchases, and increasing the tax on cigarettes by 33¢ over two years. The total tax increase on Vermonters amounts to roughly $12 million. Those voting NO opposed these tax increases. MILLER – YES

$33.2 Million in Income Tax Increases (H.489). Passed 76-67, March 27, 2015. Analysis: Those voting YES on this bill approved a tax increase on Vermonters of $33.2 million, raised primarily from capping itemized deductions on the state income tax at $15,000 for individuals and $31,000 for couples, and disallowing deductions for state and local income taxes from the previous year. Some of those voting NO argued that Vermont has “a spending problem, not a revenue problem,” and that taxes are already too high in Vermont. Others voting NO believed H.489 did not raise enough revenue. (See H.489, O’Sullivan Amendment Roll Call to cross-reference.)  MILLER – YES

Additional $12 Million Income Taxes (H.489). Failed 43-98, March 26, 2015. Those voting YES on this amendment supported: “Beginning in tax year 2015 and after, the rates assigned to the individual income tax brackets under 32 V.S.A. § 5822(a), from lowest to highest, shall be 3.55 percent, 6.8percent, 7.8 percent,9.5percent,and 9.55percent,” in the belief that the underlying bill did not raise enough revenue ($33.2 million) on its own. Those voting NO opposed this. MILLER – YES

Lake Clean Up With Existing Funds (No New Taxes) (H.35, DICKINSON AMENDMENT). Failed 40-100, April 1, 2015. The underlying bill, H.35, raised $8 million in new taxes for cleaning up Lake Champlain and Vermont’s other waterways. The Dickinson Amendment eliminated the need for new taxes by reallocating roughly $9 million of existing revenue for the same purpose. Those voting YES on the Dickinson Amendment believed that no new taxes were needed to fund the Lake Clean Up policies outlined in H.35, and that the financial obligations could be met by reallocating existing revenues from the property transfer tax. Those voting NO on the Dickinson Amendment supporting raising new taxes ($5.7 million from a 0.2 percent surcharge to the property transfer tax) and various fees ($2.3 million). MILLER – NO

$2.8 Million in Fee Increases. (H.184). Passed 88-57, February 12, 2015. Those voting YES on H.188 voted to increase in aggregate the fees Vermonters must pay to engage in a variety of activities — from hunting and fishing, to construction, to operating a business —by $2.8 million. Those voting NO on the bill alleged that the fee increases were too high, and not necessarily tied to the actual cost of running the program for which the fee is ostensibly set. Instead, the fees are being improperly increased for the purpose of raising general revenue. MILLER – YES

3% Cap on Fee Increases. (H.184, DAME AMENDMENT). Failed 50-96, February 13, 2015). Those who voted YES on the Dame amendment would have raised fee revenue in the aggregate by over $500k, but limited the increase of any fee to 3%. This would have been more in line with inflation/economic growth than the 50%-135% increases attached to some fees in the underlying bill, which raised fees in the aggregate by $2.8 million. MILLER – NO

46% Excise Tax on E-Cigarettes (S.139, JEWETT AMENDMENT) Passed 70-67, May 1, 2015. Those voting YES supported levying a 46% tax on the wholesale price of e-cigarettes. The tax is estimated to raise $240,000. Those voting NO opposed these tax increase. MILLER – YES

Mandates 75% of Electric Sales Be From “Renewables” by 2032. (H.40). (Passed 121-24, March 10, 2015. H.40 had many facets to it. It repealed the SPEED program and replaced it with a new RESET program, enabling Vermont utilities’ to continue to sell some Renewable Energy Credits. It also mandated that utilities have 75% of their electricity portfolio come from renewable sources by 2032. This, of course, is a mandate on customers to buy the more expensive renewables, and a requirement that more renewable electricity projects be built (25 megawatts per year). This many wind towers and solar facilities will have a negative impact on Vermont’s scenic landscape. MILLER – YES

Mandates on Businesses to Pay $14 Million for Paid Sick Leave (H.187). Passed 76-66, April 22, 2015. Those voting YES approved an unfunded mandate, estimated to be a much as $14 million annually, requiring employers to provide at least three days of paid sick leave to employees. Those voting NO opposed this mandate, citing the fact that most Vermont businesses already provide such benefits voluntarily, and those that don’t can least afford to do so. This unfunded mandate represents another burden on Vermont employers, making Vermont a less competitive place to run a business. MILLER – YES

Ban on Teachers Strikes (H.76, LALONDE AMENDMENT) Failed 70-73, April 8, 2015). The LaLonde amendment would have banned both teachers’ ability to strike and school boards’ ability to impose contract terms. It would also have set up a task force to study less disruptive means of resolving contract disputes. Those voting YES favored banning teachers’ strikes and imposed contracts. Those voting NO supported teachers’ strikes. MILLER – NO

Prevent Green Mountain Care Board from Controlling Medicare Funding (S.139). Failed 54-85, April 30, 2015. In the 2014 election, the strategic plan enacted in Act 48 of 2011 became a major issue. This amendment would have removed all references to Medicare from Act 48, thus making it clear that the state’s promised single payer health care plan could not incorporate Medicare payments for Vermont seniors. Those voting YES wanted to keep the state’s hands off the Medicare payment stream. Those voting NO reaffirmed their support for having the Green Mountain Care Board gain control over Medicare payments under a single payer or “all payer” plan. MILLER – NO

Same Day Voter Registration (S.29) Passed 87-54, May 11, 2015. Those voting YES on S.29 would allow an individual to register to vote and to vote on election day. Those voting NO believed this to be an invitation to voter fraud as there is not adequate opportunity for either the Town Clerk or other election monitors to verify that the persons registering to vote on election day are who they say they are, or are legal residents of where they claim to live. This also creates a logistical challenge for Town Clerks, who will have to both run the elections in their districts and, with this law, register new voters simultaneously. MILLER – NO

New Gun Control Regulations on Felons, Mentally Ill (S. 141) Passed 80-62, April 17, 2015. Those voting YES would make it a state crime for many convicted felons to possess firearms (already a crime under federal law). The bill also required the state report to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System any time someone has been found by a court to be mentally ill and a danger to himself or others. Those voting NO believed this is a “solution in search of a problem.” MILLER – YES

Re-Elected, November 2014


5.5% STATE SPENDING INCREASE FOR 2015 (H. 885). Passed 91-46, March 27, 2014. Those voting YES on H.885 supported general fund spending for FY2015 of $1.438 billion. This represents a 5.5% increase ($88 million) over the original FY2014 budget of $1.362 billion as passed in 2013, and a 3.8% increase over the FY2014 budget as adjusted (upward) in 2014.The 5.5% spending increase is five times the current rate of inflation (1.1%), and nearly double Vermonters’ average rate of personal income growth (2.88% for 2013). MILLER – YES

$12.6 MILLION INCREASE TO 2014 SPENDING (H.655). Passed 110-33, January 24, 2014. The “Budget Adjustment Act,” is designed to “tweak” spending levels passed into law by the legislature in the previous year before in response to changes in fiscal conditions. Those voting YES on this 2014 Budget Adjustment, H.655, voted for a net increase of $12.63 million in new spending to the FY2014 General Fund budget bringing total FY2014 General Fund spending up to $1.37 billion. MILLER – YES

$56.2 MILLION PROPERTY TAX INCREASE (H. 889). Passed 89-51, April 4, 2014. Those voting YES on H.889 voted in favor of a $62 million property tax increase.  Residential property tax rates rise 4¢ (4%) from 94¢ to 98¢ per $100 of assessed value. Nonresidential tax rates rise 7.5¢ (5%) from $1.44 to $1.515 per $100 of value. MILLER – YES

$1.2 MILLION MISCELLANEOUS TAX INCREASE (H. 884). Passed 104-41, March 27, 2014. The Miscellaneous Tax bill is an annual adjustment of tax provisions needed to match revenues with spending. Those voting YES on H.884 voted in favor of increasing the tax on tobacco snuff from $2.24 to $2.62, which is projected to raise $700,000, and to implement a 92% wholesale tax on electronic cigarettes, which was projected to raise $500,000. MILLER – YES 

OVER $800,000 INCREASE IN MISCELANEOUS FEES (H.735). Passed 87-48, May 9, 2014. The “Fee Bill” sets the fees for business and professional licensing and a number of state services. This year’s bill was made controversial by a provision requiring $200 fee for storage of firearms confiscated by law enforcement following domestic disturbances. Those voting YES on H.735 supported over $800,000 in fee increases. MILLER – YES

INCREASE MINIMUM WAGE 16% TO $10.10 PER HOUR (H. 552) Passed 87-57, April 8, 2014. Those voting YES supported raising the minimum wage from $8.73 to $10.10 effective January 2015. This is a 16% increase and was estimated to cost Vermont businesses $30 million. State economist Tom Kavet testified that a rise in the minimum wage to $10 would result in the loss of 250 jobs or the equivalent in hours. Vermont already has the third highest minimum wage in the United States. MILLER – YES 

MANDATORY SCHOOL DISTRICT CONSOLIDATION (H.883). Passed 76-60, April 30, 2014. Those voting YES on the bill supported the mandate, “This bill proposes to require…[that] as of July 1, 2020, supervisory unions shall cease to exist and current school districts shall be realigned into expanded prekindergarten–grade 12 school districts (Expanded Districts) that are responsible for the education of all resident students in prekindergarten–grade 12.” This would eliminate local school boards and erode local control over education. This bill would not reduce the cost of education, and would probably, in the short term, increase costs in order to pay for the transition. MILLER – ABSENT

ALLOW CHILDCARE BUSINESSES TO UNIONIZE/COLLECTIVLEY BARGAIN FOR SUBSIDIES (S. 316) Passed 78-59, May 6, 2014. This bill would allow early childcare businesses to form a union to collectively bargain for taxpayer-funded subsidies.  The legislature is essentially giving a union taxpayer money to lobby the legislature about something for which the legislature is already aware it is responsible, and forces hundreds of small business people in Vermont to pay “agency fees” (85% of union dues) to a union that they do not want to join. MILLER – YES

EXEMPT NON-UNIONIZED CHILDCARE WORKERS FROM PAYING “AGENCY FEES” TO A UNION (BOUCHARD AMENDMENT to S.316). Failed 53-86 on May 6, 2014. The underlying bill (S.316) allows early childcare businesses to form a union to collectively bargain with the state for subsidies. The Bouchard amendment would have exempted those early childcare providers who choose not to join a union from having to pay “agency fees” (85% of union dues) to that union. MILLER – NO 

MAKE SINGLE-PAYER FINANCING PLAN(S) OPEN TO THE PUBLIC (Browning Amendment to H. 884) Failed 39-102, March 28, 2014. The Browning Amendment to H.884 would have bound committees in the House (Ways & Means) and Senate (Finance) to formally request that the Shumlin Administration submit on or before April 30, 2014 one or more financing proposals for Green Mountain Care (single payer healthcare). If the proposal(s) are not complete by that date, “all drafts, reports and other documents related to financing Green Mountain Care” would be turned over. In the event the Administration did not comply, the committees would be bound to subpoena the Administration for the information. MILLER – NO

REPEAL AND REPLACE EDUCATION FINANCING SYSTEM (ACT 60/68) (Scheuermann Amendment to H. 889) Failed 49-83, April 3, 2014. The “Repeal & Replace amendment” proposed to repeal Vermont’s current education funding laws (Act 60/68) effective July 1, 2016 with a replacement to take effect for the 2016-2017 Academic Year. The Scheuermann Amendment comes in the wake of 37 Vermont towns voting down their school budgets. 43 towns lowered school spending, but, under the current financing system, still saw property taxes increase. Those voting NO voted to leave the status quo in place. Those voting YES voted for reform. MILLER – NO

IMPOSE STRICTER CENTRAL PLANNING FOR LAND DEVELOPMENT (H. 823). Passed 92-44, March 13, 2014. This bill was designed to funnel development into “approved, designated centers” (urban) and discourage development in other areas (rural) by making allowances for, and in some cases subsidies to, the former, and creating legal barriers to the latter. H.823 places strict regulations on the “conditions and criteria” for obtaining development permits. In the words of House Energy & Natural Resources Committee, Rep. Tony Klein, this bill turns Act 250 into a “living document.” MILLER – YES 

REQUIRE “MAY CONTAIN GMO” LABEL ON SOME FOOD PRODUCTS (H. 112). Passed 114-30, April 23, 2014. The GMO labeling bill is popular with Vermonters because people quite logically want to know what is in the food they eat. Therefore, superficially this bill makes sense. However, there are two major concerns with H.112 in practice. 1) It opens Vermont taxpayers up to an estimated $1.5 to $8 million in legal liabilities if the law is challenged in court and the state loses – certain and likely scenarios respectively. 2) Given the number of exemptions to the labeling codified within the bill, it really doesn’t achieve the ostensible goal of enlightening consumers as to whether or not they are eating GMOs. MILLER – YES


4.7% STATE SPENDING INCREASE (H.530). Passed 91-49, March 29, 2013. Those members voting YES on the “Omnibus Appropriations Bill” voted to increase state spending by 4.7%. This is nearly 2 and a half times the rate of inflation. MILLER – YES

$50 MILLION PROPERTY TAX INCREASE (H.265). Passed 96-45, Feb. 19, 2013. Those who voted YES on this bill voted to increase the residential property tax rate by $.05 per $100.00 of assessed value, and $.06 on non-residential property to $.94 and $1.44 respectively. The total tax increase on Vermont property taxpayers as a result of this bill is estimated at over $50 million. MILLER – YES

$21.8 MILLION GAS TAX INCREASE (H.510). Passed 105-37, March 20, 2013. Legislators who voted YES on this bill supported a $21.8 million tax increase on gasoline – a roughly 7.5 cent per gallon increase by 2014. This represents the largest gas tax increase in Vermont history. MILLER – YES

$27 MILLION MISCELLANEOUS TAX INCREASE (H.528). Passed 85-55, March 27, 2013. Those members voting YES voted to expand the Vermont state sales tax (6%) to bottled water, clothing (including shoes) over $110, candy, soft drinks, and dietary supplements, and to increase the tax on cigarettes and smokeless tobacco by $0.50 (total: $3.12) and $0.88 (total: $3.12) respectively. They voted to increase the Rooms & Meals tax from 9% to 9.5% for 2014, and they voted to apply the Meals tax to food sold out of vending machines. They voted to cap all itemized tax deductions at 2.5 times standard deduction, eliminated Vermont’s 8.8% tax bracket, moving those earning $178,651 and more into the top 8.95% tax bracket, formerly reserved for those earning $388,351 and above.  The total estimated cost to Vermont taxpayers: $27 million in 2014 and $32.3 million in 2015. MILLER – YES

STOP ‘RAIDS’ ON THE TRANSPORTATION FUND (Koch Amendment to H.510). Failed 49-88, March 21, 2013. Those voting YES on voted to assure that no transportation funds will be appropriated for the support of government other than for true transportation purposes. This would have reduced or negated the need for a gas tax increase. MILLER – NO

STATE OVERRIDES LOCAL CONTROL, MANDATES PRE-K (H.270). Passed 95-43, May 1, 2013. Those voting YES on H.270 voted to saddle Vermonters with an estimated $10 million cost/tax increase over the next five years, and to take away local control regarding the decision of whether or not to offer publicly funded pre-kindergarten. When the legislature established publicly funded pre-k in 2007, it did so with the assurance to communities that funding pre-k would remain voluntary. This bill reneges on that deal. MILLER – YES

FORCE NON-UNION WORKER TO PAY FEES TO UNIONS (S.14). Passed 85-43, April 26, 2013. Those voting YES on S.14 voted in favor of forcing non-union workers to pay a fee equal to 85% of the dues unionized workers pay to the union, effectively using government power to require citizens to make payments to a private organization that they want nothing to do with. S.14 affects roughly 2,600 education, state and municipal employees, mostly low-wage support staff who can least afford the payment. MILLER – YES

LIMIT CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS (S.82). Passed 96-49, May 8, 2013. Those voting YES on S.82 voted in favor of capping donations to independent political committees that do not coordinate with candidates or parties, despite Supreme Court precedents that are pretty clear that this constitutes a violation of the First Amendment. If the bill is challenged in court, which it likely will be, the state would most likely lose, leaving taxpayers on the hook for an estimated $5 million. MILLER – YES

SET FIVE YEAR TIME LIMIT FOR WELFARE BENEFITS (Donahue Amendment to H.530) Failed 51-88, March 28, 2013.  Those voting YES on this amendment voted to limit Reach Up benefits to 60 cumulative months of financial assistance, excluding child-only grants, per family.  This amendment is similar to a proposal from Governor Shumlin, about which he cautioned, “Vermont was the only state left in America where welfare benefits were timeless, not temporary.” MILLER – NO

REGULATE WATERFRONT PROPERTY RIGHTS (H.526) Passed 105-42, March 27, 2013. This bill gives the Secretary of Natural resources unprecedented power to regulate the private property of waterfront owners. S.526 dictates that property owners will require a permit from the Secretary to create or expand anything with more than 500 square feet of “impervious surface” (defined as: “those manmade surfaces, including paved and unpaved roads, parking areas, roofs, driveways, and walkways, from which precipitation runs off rather than infiltrates.”), or create more than 500 square feet of “cleared area” (defined as: “an area where existing vegetative cover, soil, or duff is permanently removed or altered.”) in a “protected shoreland area” (defined as: “all land located within 250 feet of the mean water level of a lake that is greater than 10 acres in surface area.”) MILLER – YES

EXEMPT “CLOUD” SERVICES FROM SALES TAX (Scheuermann Amendment to H.528) Failed 53-90, March 28, 2013. This amendment would exempt internet-based “Cloud” services from Vermont’s sales tax. Defined as “charges made for the right to remotely access and use prewritten computer software, where possession of the software is maintained by the seller or a third party”, this tax would presume to charge consumers for remotely accessed services, even if they are free. Examples of “cloud” computing include Skype, Google Voice, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, as well as “cloud” storage services (Google Drive) and software production (Google Apps). MILLER – NO

ALLOW PRIVATE DOCTOR/PATIENT CONTRACTS (Browning Amendment to H.107) Failed 44-94, March 19, 2013. Those voting YES on this amendment voted to ensure that Vermont residents would maintain the ability to enter into voluntary financial contracts with their health care providers, and prohibit the Green Mountain Care Board from placing restrictions on health care professionals’ practice locations. MILLER – NO



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The Ethan Allen Institute is Vermont’s free-market public policy research and education organization. Founded in 1993, we are one of fifty-plus similar but independent state-level, public policy organizations around the country which exchange ideas and information through the State Policy Network.

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