Rep. Terri Williams

2022 Legislative Session


Override Clean Heat Carbon Tax Veto (H.715). Failed 99-51 (100 to override) on May 10, 2022. The Clean Heat Standard (CHS) is a complicated, de facto carbon tax intended to hide the price increases on fossil fuels. If heating fuel sellers do not generate enough “clean heat credits” themselves through weatherization and green appliance installations, they must purchase credits generated by others to stay in business. Those voting YES believe the CHS will help Vermont achieve its GWSA 2025 & 2030 greenhouse gas reduction mandates. House members voting YES trust the PUC to implement the Clean Heat Standard without needing further legislative approval. Those voting NO believe the CHS would lead to extreme hardship for the 200,000+ fossil fuel heating Vermont households and numerous small businesses supplying and relying on fossil fuels. The technology to replace fossil fuel heating systems is not currently scalable to satisfy the GWSA, due to labor and supply restraints.

Williams - NO

Impose Rental Registration with Housing Programs (S.210). Passed 88-54 on April 22, 2022. The flagship provision of S.210 is a statewide registry of rental properties. Landlords can only rent housing if they pay $35 to register it and may not rent units that fail inspection (complaint basis). 7 full-time bureaucrats would administer the program, with salaries initially paid by federal ARPA money. Units rented out for fewer than 90 days are exempt. S.210 also creates two housing programs, designed to expand Vermont’s rental market and increase the homeownership rate. Those voting YES believe S.210 will increase the quantity, affordability and safety of Vermont’s rental housing market. Those voting NO were against the rental registry portion of S.210. They believe increasing housing regulations will reduce Vermont’s housing supply, raise rent on properties, shrink Vermont’s tourism industry, and reduce tax intake from short-term rentals. This could represent the first step toward state control of rental property.

Williams - NO

Restrict Aggressive Political Speech and Firearm Rights (S.265). Passed 89-32 on April 12, 2022. The underlying language of S.265 would allow for the legal punishment of citizens who are aggressive toward public officials. Citizens could be given a misdemeanor (a year or less in prison) or even a felony (up to two years in prison). A felony charge could result in temporary or permanent seizure of firearms. S.265 also makes it more difficult for a defendant’s legal defense to claim that the defendant was unable to carry out their threat. Those voting YES believe that conflicts between citizens and school board members and other public official across the country warrants increased protections for elected officials from threats of violence, above those of ordinary citizens. Those voting NO believe S.265 infringes on the Constitutional rights to free speech, to petition government and Second Amendment firearm rights. S.265 could potentially result in citizens being punished for criticism (not threats) of certain groups, which is clearly protected First Amendment speech.

Williams - NO

Add 27 days for “Default Proceed” Firearm Background Checks (Notte Amendment of S.30). Passed on January 27, 2022 by a vote of 97-49. This would lengthen the time some Vermont firearm applications take from 3 to 30 days. Those voting YES believe this amended bill could “potentially save lives,” by preventing dangerous police retrievals of guns for those who ultimately fail federal background checks. Those voting NO point to the rights to firearms protected in the Vermont and US Constitutions. They note that failed background checks have a shelf life of 30 days, meaning the applicant could be caught in an endless cycle.

Williams - NO

Protect Doctor-Patient Privacy during Firearm Disputes (Donahue Motion of S.30). Failed on January 27, 2022 by a vote of 55-90. S.30 would add various gun restrictions, as voted upon above. The Donahue Motion would send S.30 and the Notte amendment to the House Healthcare Committee for further review. Those voting YES believe that greater deliberation was needed for discovering how S.30 could impact Vermonter’s doctor/patient relationships, if healthcare workers become legally obligated to report patients, limiting their firearm rights. Those voting NO believe that no such analysis was necessary.

Williams - YES

Stricter Act 250 Development Process (S.234). Passed 99-43 on May 3, 2022. S.234 reorganizes the Act 250 approval process, which restricts economic development. The new permitting process adds “undue adverse impact on forest blocks (or) connecting habitat” to the list of reasons an Act 250 permit could be rejected. S.234 also offers favorable tax treatment to areas that already have economic development. The permit fees would fund the salaries of a new “Environmental Review Board,” overseeing Act 250 permits. Those voting YES believe updating Act 250 will reduce Vermont’s carbon emissions, preserve natural habitat for wildlife and funnel development into downtown areas. Those voting NO believe S.234 will make getting Act 250 permit approval more difficult, costly and uncertain. Housing and business development will fall further behind.

Williams - NO

Mandate Conserving Half of Vermont Land from Development (H.606). Passed 98-42 on March 15, 2022. H.606 mandates conserving 30% of Vermont land by 2030, and 50% by 2050. Vermont would need to conserve another 6-8% of its private and public lands by 2030, and more than double its land conservation by 2050. Conserved land would gain "permanent protection" of a "natural state" of land, or could by subject to "long-term forest management." It is unclear what would happen if Vermont failed to meet these mandates, though conservation groups could conceivably sue Vermont for failing to address climate change quickly enough under the 2020 GWSA. Those voting YES believe greater conservation of land under H.606 will reduce the damage that climate change will have on Vermont ecosystems. Those voting NO believe creating new mandates will only increase the cost of living and intensify Vermont’s housing crisis, if less land is available for residential and commercial development. A land grab against private landowners is possible.

Williams - NO

Enact Contractor Registration & 3 Housing Programs (S.226). Passed 103-42 on May 6, 2022. S.226 would enact a Residential Contractors Registry, requiring contractors to pay $75-250 annually to work legally in state, with an option of becoming certified in specific areas of contracting. S.226 also seeks to increase Vermont’s housing stock and make existing homes more affordable, by spending $20 million in federal ARPA funding on three housing programs. Those voting YES believe S.226 will protect Vermonters from contractor fraud, while the programs will alleviate Vermont’s housing crisis. Those voting NO opposed the contractor registry portion of the bill, believing home improvement fraud is rare enough that government intrusion is unnecessary. When fraud does happen, Vermont government has been reluctant to use the tools available to address it. Contractors are likely to raise their rates to cover the registry charge and added paperwork needed to do their jobs.

Williams - NO

Create ‘Environmental Rights’ to Defend (S.148). Passed 109-31 on May 3, 2022. S.148 would acknowledge the environmental disparities minorities face in Vermont and to give those minorities more chances to live and work in the safest and least polluted areas of Vermont. A new 17-member Environmental Justice Advisory Council and an 11-member Interagency Environmental Justice Committee would make recommendations to the Legislature and Vermont government agencies for integrating environmental justice principles into State policy. Those voting YES argued that minorities live and work in environmentally undesirable locations relative to white Vermonters. Those voting NO are wary of adding 28 individuals to Vermont’s bureaucracy (insulated from Vermont citizen objections), who will likely make costly recommendations, with no shortage of ‘injustices’ to alleviate.

Williams - NO

Expand Police Reporting, Study Misconduct & Interrogation (S.250). Passed 99-48 on May 11, 2022. First, S.250 expands obligated police collection of demographic data from roadside stops to any police encounter with citizens. Second, it creates a database of pending police infractions against individual officers. Finally, a study of appropriate police interrogation is authorized. Those voting YES believe more substantial data collection on police encounters and oversight of police interrogation techniques are needed. Those voting NO believe that expanding police encounter data will overburden exhausted police with more paperwork, exhibiting a distrust in the police that makes recruitment and retention difficult. The interrogation study begins with a bias against police already, having reached a predetermined conclusion that future legislation is needed to correct police misconduct.

Williams - NO

Make Town Withdrawal from School Districts More Difficult (H.727). Passed 98-39 on March 17, 2022. H.727 encourages multi-town school district foundation and discourages town school withdrawal from school districts. Current Vermont statute allows town citizens to bring school withdrawal from a district to a vote. H.727 would require more paperwork to be completed before the proposed withdrawal goes to vote, and gives the State Board of Education a final say in that withdrawal process. Those voting YES believe school withdrawal requires more serious deliberation than is currently the case, and want to give Vermont veto authority in such decisions. Those voting NO objected to the added paperwork that is especially onerous for smaller towns hoping to separate from their district. H.727 takes away local decision-making power and centralizes it in the State Board of Education.

Williams - YES

Ensure Assisted Suicide is Voluntary (S.74). Failed 41-98 on April 13, 2022. S.74 would expand Vermont’s euthanasia law to allow terminally ill individuals to order the drugs they need to kill themselves exclusively with video telemedicine. The Donahue Amendment of S.74 would safeguard against the possibility of coercion by insisting that one of the patient’s appointments be in-person. Those voting YES believe eliminating the in-person requirement could make it much easier for those with authority over the individual to coerce the patient into ending their life before they would like to. Those voting NO believe many terminally ill Vermonters are not well enough to visit a healthcare provider, making video telemedicine the logical option.

Williams - YES

Guarantee "Personal Reproductive Autonomy" (Proposal 5). Passed on February 8, 2022 by a vote of 107-41. Proposal 5 would amend Vermont’s Constitution, adding “that an individual’s right to personal reproductive autonomy is central to the liberty and dignity to determine one’s own life course and shall not be denied or infringed unless justified by a compelling State interest achieved by the least restrictive means.” Those voting YES argued that a constitutional amendment is necessary to protect abortion rights in case Roe v. Wade is overturned. Those voting NO may or may not be in favor of greater abortion protections, but argued that the vaguely worded language in Proposal 5 that does not mention ‘abortion’ is so ambiguous that any number of judicial interpretations could be reached.

Williams - NO


2021 Legislative Session


Pass All-Mail Voting, No Safeguards (S.15). Passed 119-30 on May 11, 2021. S.15 makes permanent the Covid-19 emergency measure of mailing “live” ballots to all active voters on the statewide checklist regardless of request. Vermont would become the only state relying on all-mail voting to do so without security measures. In the event a ballot is cast fraudulently by mail and the legitimate voter shows up at the polls to vote, there is no way to remove the fraudulent vote. Those voting YES believe the convenience of an all-mail voting system is worth the potential risk of fraud, which they believe is insignificant. Those voting NO believe it is irresponsible to have a voting system in which the overwhelming number of ballots counted (76% in 2020) cannot be independently verified by election officials as valid or fraudulent. States that have moved to all-mail voting exhibit large racial voting disparities and flat or declining overall participation in the election.

Williams - NO

Accept Ballot Security Measures for All-Mail Voting (S.15). Failed 39-99 on May 12, 2021. The S.15 Strong Amendment would delay implementation of vote-by-mail elections until after the Secretary of State’s report on ballot security is complete. Town clerks and the Director of Elections testified that there is no way to police fraud and determine if an absentee ballot was filled out and returned by the appropriate voter. Those voting YES on the Strong Amendment believe it is irresponsible to execute vote-by-mail elections before options for ballot security provisions are even studied. Those voting NO on the Strong Amendment believe absentee ballot security measures are not necessary in Vermont, and the “honor system” is enough to ensure election integrity.

Williams - YES

Pass $2 Million Transfer Tax, Expand Urban Tax Credit (S.101). Passed 93-56 on May 18, 2021. S.101 creates an additional 0.5% property transfer tax on all real estate transactions exceeding $1 million, resulting in a tax increase of $2 million. Expands town center manufactured homes’ tax credits from $425,000 to $675,000. Authorizes the Planning Fund to give grants to municipalities for promoting “smart growth” that emphasizes walkable, compact neighborhoods. Those voting YES believe this will help revitalize town centers and encourage “smart growth” in urban areas, while raising tax revenue. Those voting NO question increasing the property tax, which would disproportionately impact small business at a time when businesses are just recovering from the Covid shutdown a recession and dissuade new businesses from setting up shop.

Williams - NO

Override Governor’s Vetoes of Montpelier, Winooski Noncitizen Voting (H.177, H.227). Passed 103-47 both times on June 23, 2021. To override Governor Scott’s vetoes of H.177 and H.227, which amended the charters of the cities of Montpelier and Winooski to allow non-citizens who are legally in the United States and full-time residents of each city to vote in city elections. Those voting YES assert that non-citizens pay taxes, have children in the schools, and are active participants in the community, therefore they deserve the right to vote on issues that affect them. Those voting NO assert that voting is a right and responsibility tied to citizenship under the Vermont Constitution. Giving this privilege to non-citizens unfairly undermines the votes of actual citizens.

Williams - NO

Impose Rental Housing Registration Requirement (S.79). Passed 93-54 on May 21, 2021. Creates a statewide registry of rental properties monitored by a 5-person, full-time task force who will collect a $35 fee per unit from owners to register with the state. Second, the inception of the “Vermont Rental Housing Investment Program,” providing grants and loans to “households identifying as Black, Indigenous, or Persons of Color.” Those voting YES believe the bill would make rental housing safer, and encourage landlords who own blighted or vacant rental properties to bring them up to code, increasing the overall amount of rental housing available in the state. Those voting NO believe this would cripple Vermont’s short-term rental industry, reduce tourism, harm homeowners who rely on income from a short-term rental to afford their properties, and cause a shortage of rentals on the market.

Williams - NO

Allow 15-17 Year-olds in Brattleboro to Vote/Hold Elective Office (H.361). Passed 102-42 on April 29, 2021 To allow children 15-17 years old to vote in local elections and on local issues, and to hold elective office. H.361 changes to the Brattleboro charter to allow 16-17 years olds (and 15 years olds who turn 16 by election day) to vote in municipal elections and serve on town boards. Those voting YES believe this will help get young people more involved in the political process and establish the habit of voting. Those voting NO believe that children who are not legal adults are not ready to make fully informed decisions relating to voting or mature enough to hold positions of authority and responsibility over critical municipal decisions.

Williams - NO

Declare Racism a “Public Health Emergency.” (JRH.6) Passed 135-8 on May 12, 2021. Declare white-against-black (and other minorities) racism a public health emergency. Legislators dedicate themselves to the “deep work of eradicating systemic racism throughout the State, actively fighting racist practices … grounded in science and data.” They hope to achieve “more just and equitable systems” in Vermont. Many of those voting YES believe white Vermonters are guilty of intentional and unintentional racism toward minorities, resulting in “systemic” racism that severely harms the very bodies of minorities, especially blacks. Massive amounts of money (such as reparations) from Vermont taxpayers will be necessary to eradicate the effects of slavery. Those voting NO believe that prioritizing racial disparities over all other types of social disparities increases the chances that unwieldy proposals for removing racism will hurt Vermonters of all races.

Williams - YES

Allocate $80 million in Covid Funding for Bevy of Programs (H.315). Passed 141-5 on April 6, 2021. The bill allocates federal $80 million (as of yet, not received) in federal American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) funds to areas somewhat related to Covid’s impact on Vermont. Many of those voting YES believe this is a bill is essential for helping Vermonters during a difficult time, at any financial cost. Others reluctantly voted YES reluctantly and did not want to make their constituents wait to receive essential funding. Some of those voting NO are wary of “premature” allocation of ARPA funding that Vermont has not received yet. They view much of the funding in the bill as hastily allocated and excessive. Beginning in tax year 2021, Vermont would tax, as income, PPP loans that Vermont businesses received from the federal government (which are not taxed as income by the federal government).

Williams - YES

$14 Million Tax on “Cloud-based” Software (S.53, Sections 9-12). Passed 96-44 on April 15, 2021. This would apply the state sales tax (6%) to cloud-based software services, costing Vermonters at least $11 million a year. Those voting YES wanted to raise tax revenue by including cloud services. Those voting NO wanted to remove the cloud tax. This tax would strike Vermont businesses relying on the cloud, while telling prospective Vermont businesses to stay away. A tax increase is not needed, given our $300 million revenue surplus.

Williams - NO

Seize Firearms After Alleged Domestic Abuse (H.133). Passed 102-44 on March 12, 2021. Seeks to offer alleged victim of abuse greater protection, “upon a finding that there is an immediate danger of further abuse.” Section E would require the accused “to immediately relinquish, until the expiration of the order, all firearms that are in the defendant’s possession, ownership, or control, and to refrain from acquiring or possessing any firearms while the order is in effect.” Those voting YES believe this is a reasonable protection for victims of domestic abuse. Those voting NO believe this is a due process violation of the Second Amendment and Article 16 of the Vermont Constitution. The defendant has no opportunity to offer evidence disproving abuse.

Williams - YES

Mandatory Registration for Construction Contractors (H.157). Passed 97-52 on April 6, 2021. Contractors with residential construction jobs exceeding $3500 in labor and materials must pay $75-$250 annually to register with Vermont. A written contract and liability insurance are also required. An “unauthorized practice” penalty could result in a $5,000 fine and/or 1-year imprisonment. Those voting YES believe this bill will prevent fraud and provide consumer protection when fraud occurs. It also creates a mechanism to enforce future environmental building regulations. Those voting NO note that small claims court already exists for addressing fraud. This is a $620,000 a year problem, with a $740,000 estimated cost in annual registration fees, before contract drafting costs.

Williams - NO

Allow Montpelier’s Noncitizens to Vote (H.177). Passed 103-39 on March 10, 2021. Allows non-citizens who are legally in the US and full-time residents of Montpelier to vote in Montpelier elections, amending Montpelier’s charter. Those voting YES assert that non-citizens pay taxes, have children in the schools, and are active participants in the community, therefore they deserve the right to vote on issues that affect them. Those voting NO assert that voting is a right and responsibility tied to citizenship under the Vermont Constitution. Giving this privilege to non-citizens unfairly undermines the votes of actual citizens.

Williams - NO

Shift Union Bargaining Costs to Taxpayers (H.81). Passed 102-46 on February 16, 2021. The purpose of this bill is to create a separate bargaining process for lower income school workers. Those voting YES want to give paraeducators, cafeteria workers, school custodians and other lower-paid school staff a bigger seat at the bargaining table. Those voting NO believe H.81 will have “significant (negative) financial implications for Vermont taxpayers.” Bargaining will take more time, and thus more money for publicly financed negotiations. If lower income employees pay just 1% less on their premiums after negotiations, taxpayers would have to pay another $1.43 million. Taxpayers in some school districts may pay more than others, worsening “inequity issues for our students and our taxpayers.”

Williams - NO

Expand 5¢ Deposit Fee to Most Containers (H.175). Passed 99-46 on April 15, 2021. To raise revenue by expanding the 5¢ beverage container deposit/redemption requirement to water bottles, wine bottles and other containers, with new labeling requirements, except for milk. Vermont is projected to get $1 million more annually from unredeemed deposits. The expansion requires an IT upgrade and hiring a bureaucrat paid $125,000 annually. Those voting YES believe the bottle bill has a successful environmental track record and deserves to be expanded. Those voting NO believe that “single stream” recycling programs are more environmentally effective than separate systems. H.175 places financial and storage burdens (for returned containers) on small businesses. Out-of-state beverage distributors may stop selling in Vermont to avoid the re-labeling requirement.

Williams - NO

Remove Property Transfer 0.5% Tax (H.437, Scheuermann Amendment). Failed 53-94 on March 25, 2021. This would remove an additional 0.5% property transfer tax on real estate transactions of $1 million or more. Those voting YES wanted to remove the tax increase from the bill. The majority of real estate transactions over $1 million are farms, retail, restaurants, and manufacturing businesses. Not private mansions. This tax would be another disincentive for businesses to come to Vermont. Those voting NO favored keeping the increased tax in the bill. They believe spending new tax revenue to increase the supply and quality of low-income housing is worth any negative economic impact.

Williams - YES

Create Pension Task Force (H.449). Passed 125-22 on April 22, 2021. The Pension Benefits, Design, and Funding Task Force will analyze the state employees, teachers, and municipal employees pension funds while reviewing the retirement benefit plans for current and retired teachers and employees. Second, the Treasurer’s oversight of the Vermont Pension Investment Commission will end, giving the Commission more investment independence. Those voting YES believe creating the Task Force is critical to fixing the unfunded liability crisis. Most of those voting NO opposed the makeup of the body for not having enough representation by labor interests. Others voting NO believe more decisive action is needed now. Vermont’s three state funded pension systems have a combined unfunded liability of $5.8 billion and rising. Recognizing the problem is a small step in the right direction but is well short of decisive action.

Williams - YES

Allow Income Tax Exemption for $30,000 in Military Pensions (S.53, Sibilia Amendment). Failed 55-79 on April 15, 2021. The Sibilia Amendment attempts to increase the military pension exemption amount from $10,000 (tax benefit ~$100) to $30,000 (tax benefit ~$400). Only 3 states currently tax fully military pensions, and Vermont is one of them. Those voting YES supported the higher exemption for military pensions to show respect for those who have served, while bringing Vermont tax policy more in line with other states. Those voting NO wanted to maintain a revenue source and opposed the higher exemption.

Williams - YES

Resolve Against Police Restructuring (H.R.7). Passed 108-40 on February 5, 2021. To reject Governor Scott’s executive order to restructure Vermont’s police and emergency forces. This order would bring Vermont’s law enforcement, fire division, and emergency management government branches closer together. It would create an Agency of Public Safety, composed of the Department of Fire Safety & Emergency Management and the Department of Law Enforcement. Those voting YES voted to reject the order, mentioning the Governor’s lack of ‘due process.’ They were open to the governor’s proposals, but believed legislative deliberation is needed. Those voting NO were decidedly neutral toward the governor’s order but expressed alarm about the House’s general lack of transparency in getting the resolution to the floor.

Williams - NO

Add Income Tax Surcharge on "The Rich" (H.436, Cina Amendment). Failed 21-125 on March 26, 2021. To add a marginal tax increase of 3% to income over $500,000, giving Vermont the second highest marginal income tax rate in the nation at 11.75%, behind only California. The revenue from which would be used to repair Vermont’s neglected state pension obligations. Those voting YES believe that “the rich” need to be “asked” to pay “their fair share” regardless of any other economic implications. Some voting NO believe saddling Vermont with the second-highest marginal income tax rate in the country is bad economic policy. Others voting NO sounded open to taxing the rich but didn’t want to use the tax increase to fund the pension obligations.

Williams - NO





Took office in 2021